S Ranganna is presently Scientist, Central Food Technological Research Institute (CFTRI), Mysore, A Ph D from the University of Mysore, he has taught for several years at the FAO International Food Technology Training Centre, CFTRI, Mysore. He also has experience in industrial production of fruit and vegetable products, analysis of commercial products with reference to standards and in setting up experiment stations and factories. His research areas include strained baby foods, fruit juice concentrates and powders, study of the mechanism of discolouration in canned and dried fruits and vegetable products, lowmethoxyl pectin, and determination of thermal process schedule for canned fruits and vegetables.
The removal of browning substrates thus seems to be a better option to reduce browning and quality deterioration during processing and storage of fruit products, although a compromise is to be made for the removal of one or a few of the nutritional components. The removal of one of the browning substrate i.e. amino acids from lemon juice by use of cation exchange resin treatment has been reported to reduce non-enzymatic browning in finished products during preparation and storage(Sharma et al. 2004a, 2006), but the implications of cation exchange resin treatment on retention of nutritional and sensory quality of lemon juice powder during storage is still scanty in literature. Further, all the fruit juice powders have a property of formation of cake as soon as they are exposed to air. This can be reduced by making use of various anticaking agents. The efficacy of various anticaking agents were evaluated by the authors in their earlier studies and it was found that pulverization of juice powder with powdered cane sugar is very effective for reducing caking and hygroscopicity of the product (Sharma et al. 2002).
The first handbook of its kind, giving in one volume, etailed information on both the analysis and quality control of fruit and vegetable products. Authoritative, need-based and up-to-date, the book has been principally designed to meet the day-to-day requirements.Starting from the analysis of common constituents, the book covers methods of analysis of specific raw materials and containers used in processing measurement of different quality attributes, sensory evaluation, microbiological and microanalytical examinations, determination of thermal process time, and examination of specific fruit and vegetable products. The last few chapters are devoted to statistical quality control, preparation of standard solutions and tables required for day-to-day use. Sufficient theoretical information is included in each chapter before the methods are described. Each method is self-contained, easy to follow, time-tested and complete in all respects. Wherever needed, reference values or standards-PFA, ISI or FAO/WHO Codex Alimentarius are given.
\r \tThe first handbook of its kind, giving in one volume, etailed information on both the analysis and quality control of fruit and vegetable products. Authoritative, need-based and up-to-date, the book has been principally designed to meet the day-to-day requirements.Starting from the analysis of common constituents, the book covers methods of analysis of specific raw materials and containers used in processing measurement of different quality attributes, sensory evaluation, microbiological and microanalytical examinations, determination of thermal process time, and examination of specific fruit and vegetable products. The last few chapters are devoted to statistical quality control, preparation of standard solutions and tables required for day-to-day use. Sufficient theoretical information is included in each chapter before the methods are described. Each method is self-contained, easy to follow, time-tested and complete in all respects. Wherever needed, reference values or standards-PFA, ISI or FAO/WHO Codex Alimentarius are given.
A valuable by product that can be obtained from fruit wastes is pectin. Pectin designates those water soluble pectinic acid (colloidal polygalacturonic acids) of varying methyl ester content and degree of neutralization which is capable of forming gels with sugar and acids under suitable conditions. The suitability of pectin for different purposes is determined by their character via, anhydrouronic acid content (AUA) methoxyl content, degree of esterification, and acetyl values. Pectin, the gelatinizing agent is natural to fruits and it also occur in many other vegetable products but the amount and quality of pectin depend upon the type of fruits and vegetables maturity and method adopted for the extraction of pectin (GITCO, 1999).
Watermelon rind contains a compound known as citrulline, which have antioxidant effects that protect us from free-radical damage (anonymous, 2005). Kumar (1985) reported about 33% portion of Watermelon fruit is rind out of which about 4.36% is the outer green portion and 29% is the inner white portion. Madhuri and Devi (2003) studied the Value Addition to Watermelon Fruit Waste value added preserved products like pickles, tutti fruity, fruit cheese, vadiyams were prepared using the white portion of watermelon rind and the quality in terms of physical parameters was evaluated.
From the results of the present study it can be concluded that Fruit Butter prepared from 100% watermelon rind showed significantly high acceptability when compared to control apple butter. Utilization of watermelon rind in preparation of fruit butter can serve as healthy product for heart patients as it contains an amino acid called citrulline. Citrulline is converted to another amino acid called arginine, an amino acid vital to the heart, circulatory system & immune system and also a very good source of vitamin-A, C, B6, and Mg and K. Therefore it was suggested that watermelon rind upto 100% can be incorporated for preparation of nutritious and acceptable fruit butter. The estimated fruit waste in watermelon fruit is around 35-40% and hence the utilization of watermelon rind in the preparation of fruit butter will result in fruit waste utilization & also increase economical production of fruit products.
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